There are many feast days and holy days in the Catholic Calendar, but the Jews had special Holy Day and feast days as well. Jesus fulfilled many of these Jewish feasts in his own ministry.
Let's look at two special feasts that Jesus fulfilled: the Daily Sacrifice and the Sabbath.
Every day the Jews has two sacrifices called the Daily Sacrifice. The first sacrifice was called the Morning sacrifice and it took place at 9AM, while the second sacrifice was called the evening sacrifice and it took place at 3PM.
The sacrifice was the same for both the morning and evening sacrifice. What would happen is that a lamb would be sacrificed and that bread and wine would also be offered up. Numbers 28 tells us that this sacrifice is to be a continual offering, meaning forever.
During both of these sacrifices certain prayers would be said.
If you look to the gospels you can see how this is fulfilled in Jesus. In the Gospel of Mark Chapter 15 verse 25 it tells us that Jesus was crucified at 9 AM, this was at the same moment that the morning lamb was being slaughtered. Mark continues in Chapter 15 verse 34 and tells us that Jesus dies at 3 PM. This, of course, is the time of the evening sacrifice when the second lamb was being sacrificed.
Now, at Mass we are participating in the sacrifice of the Cross. Not that Jesus is dying anew, but that His sacrifice is being presented to the Father continuously throughout the world, fulfilling the Old Testament daily sacrifice.
Here are some of the prayers that were said during each of the sacrifices while Jesus was being crucified:
"Lord, you are almighty forever, who makes the dead alive... who supports those who fall, heals the sick, frees the captive, and keeps your word faithfully to those who sleep in the dust... Blessed are You, Lord, who makes the dead alive."
"Proclaim our liberation with the great trumpet, and raise a banner to gather together our dispersed, and assemble us from the four corners of the earth. Blessed are you, Lord, who gathers the banished of your people Israel."
"And to Jerusalem, your city, return with mercy and dwell in its midst as you have spoken; and build it soon in our days to be an everlasting building; and raise up quickly in its midst the throne of David. Blessed are you, Lord, who builds Jerusalem."
Now, let's see how Jesus fulfills the Sabbath.
As everyone probably knows the Sabbath, which is Saturday, is the day that God rested from creation.
It was on the Sabbath that the bread of the Presence, which was in the Temple, was to be eaten by the priests.
This bread was to be prepared on Friday and eaten on Saturday, or the Sabbath, but if Friday was a feast day then the bread was to be prepared on Thursday.
Jewish tradition tells us that the bread was anointed with oil in the shape of a T. The Sabbath was also a day of rest from servile work, though some Jews saw this as rest from absolutely all work.
Jesus fulfills the Sabbath in several ways.
First, as recorded in the gospel of Mark Chapter 2 verse 23, Jesus and his disciples are going through the fields on the Sabbath and plucking grain to eat. Well, this gets them in trouble with the Pharisees who accuse him of working on the Sabbath.
Jesus then reminds them about when David went and ate the bread of the presence even though he was not a priest.
Jesus is saying that "Me and my guys here are a new priesthood, so we are allowed to pluck grain on the Sabbath."
Jesus heals on the Sabbath - I think that this might be pointing to Jesus healing the old creation.
Also Jesus rests in the grave on the Sabbath.
Jesus also reveals his divinity concerning the Sabbath when he says:
John 5:16-18 16 "Therefore, the Jews began to persecute Jesus because he did this on a Sabbath. 17 But Jesus answered them, "My Father is at work until now, so I am at work." 18 For this reason the Jews tried all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the Sabbath but he also called God his own father, making himself equal to God."
Mark 2:27-28 27 "Then he said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 28 That is why the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath."
(This information came from an awesome CD set by Dr. Brant Pitre - linked below - yes it is expensive, but it is worth every penny)
The Bible and the Mass: The Jewish Roots of Christian Liturgy